Ten years’ real-life experience on the use of multikinase inhibitors in patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer

Ten years’ real-life experience on the use of multikinase inhibitors in patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate objective response rates (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC). Additionally, to compare: (i) ORR and PFS among patients treated with lenvatinib and sorafenib; (ii) ORR and PFS among patients receiving lenvatinib as first-line vs. second-line and; (iii) adverse effects (AEs) observed in patients treated with these medications.

Methods

Retrospective analysis of RR-DTC adult patients treated with TKIs at the Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clinicas, University of Buenos Aires (March 2011–November 2023).

Results

Among 43 patients included in the study, 32 received sorafenib (30 as first-line and 2 as second-line), while 29 received lenvatinib (12 as first-line and 17 as second-line). The median PFS and OS for the entire cohort were 32.7 and 39.0 months, respectively. Lenvatinib demonstrated a significantly higher ORR compared to sorafenib (37.9% vs. 9.4%, p = 0.008). However, both drugs exhibited similar median PFS (23.2 vs. 16.0 months, p = 0.419). No significant difference was observed in ORR and PFS between patients receiving first-line vs. second-line lenvatinib. Sorafenib-treated patients experienced higher rates of hand-foot skin syndrome (69% vs. 41%, p = 0.032) and alopecia (25% vs. 3%, p = 0.018), whereas lenvatinib-treated patients had higher rates of proteinuria (31% vs. 0%, p < 0.001) and grade 3 hypertension (31% vs. 9%, p = 0.034).

Conclusion

TKIs demonstrated efficacy and tolerability comparable to real-world data in RR-DTC. PFS was not statistically different between sorafenib and lenvatinib. Our study will help guide physicians in making informed decisions regarding treatment sequencing with TKIs in these patients.

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