Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common thyroid tumor in childhood. In advanced stages, it can present with respiratory failure. The treatment of choice is total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine. In cases of unresectable tumors, therapy with multikinase inhibitors should be considered. A 10-year-old girl was referred for progressive respiratory failure. A diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer with pulmonary metastases was made. Due to the presence of an unresectable tumor not subject to surgery, the compassionate use of lenvatinib was indicated, showing a rapid and favorable clinical response with resolution of respiratory failure on the ninth day. Early diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer prevents severe respiratory morbidity caused by late diagnoses. The use of lenvatinib should be considered as a previous step towards first-line therapies (surgery and radioactive iodine) in cases with great local and distant involvement.
Keywords: lenvatinib; lung metastases; multikinase inhibitors; papilar thyroid cancer; pediatrics.
Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.