Primary Resistance to Selpercatinib in a Patient with advanced Medullary Thyroid Cancer

Primary Resistance to Selpercatinib in a Patient with advanced Medullary Thyroid Cancer

Abstract

Selpercatinib, a selective RET kinase inhibitor, has demonstrated remarkable efficacy in treating patients with advanced medullary (MTC) and differentiated thyroid cancer with RET alterations. Primary resistance to selpercatinib is a very uncommon situation, and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the case of a 42-year-old female with advanced MTC harboring a somatic M918T RET mutation who exhibited a primary resistance to selpercatinib. Despite prompt treatment initiation after the diagnosis of progressive disease, the patient continued experiencing rapid spread of disease, characterized by the appearance of new metastatic lesions and increased tumor burden. Genomic analysis revealed no additional mutations associated with on-target or off-target resistance. This case highlights a rare clinical scenario of primary resistance to selpercatinib in advanced MTC. While secondary resistance mechanisms have been well-documented, primary resistance remains poorly understood. Possible explanations include tumor heterogeneity and activation of alternative signaling pathways that stills need to be elucidated. Emerging therapies targeting resistance mechanisms and next-generation RET inhibitors offer promising avenues for further investigation.

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