Multi-kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Asymptomatic Radioactive Iodine-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Global, Non-Interventional Study (RIFTOS MKI)

Abstract

Background: Sorafenib and lenvatinib are multi-kinase inhibitors (MKI) approved for patients with radioactive iodine-refractory (RAI-R) differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). There is no consensus on when to initiate MKI treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate time to symptomatic progression (TTSP) in patients with RAI-R DTC for whom the decision to treat with an MKI was made at study entry. Methods: International, prospective, open-label, non-interventional cohort study (NCT02303444). Eligible patients had asymptomatic, progressive RAI-R DTC, with ≥1 lesion ≥1 cm in diameter and life expectancy ≥6 months. The decision to treat with an MKI was at the treating physician’s discretion. Primary endpoint was TTSP from study entry. Two cohorts were evaluated: patients for whom a decision to initiate an MKI was made at study entry (Cohort 1) and patients for whom there was a decision not to initiate an MKI at study entry (Cohort 2). Cohorts were compared descriptively. Results: The full analysis set (FAS) comprised 647 patients from 19 countries. The median duration of observation was 35.5 months (range <1–59.4). Of 344 MKI-treated patients, 209 received sorafenib, 191 received lenvatinib, and 19 received another MKI at some point. Median TTSP was 55.4 months (interquartile range [IQR] 18.6–not estimable [NE]) overall, 55.4 months (IQR 15.2–NE) in Cohort 1 (n=169), and 51.4 months (IQR 20.0–NE) in Cohort 2 (n=478). TTSP ≥36 months was achieved in 64.5% of patients overall, 59.5% of patients in Cohort 1, and 66.4% of patients in Cohort 2. Median overall survival (OS) from classification as RAI-R was 167 months and median PFS from start of MKI therapy was 19.2 months and from start of sorafenib therapy 16.7 months. Among sorafenib-treated patients, 70% had dose modifications, 35% had a dose reduction, 89% experienced ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE), and 82% experienced ≥1 drug-related TEAE. Conclusion: This real-world study provides valuable insight into outcomes in patients with asymptomatic, progressive RAI-R DTC under observation or MKI treatment. TTSP in the FAS provides insight into the current prognosis for patients with RAI-R DTC in the era of MKIs.

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