Radioiodine (RAI) refractory differentiated thyroid cancer is an uncommon and challenging situation that requires a multidisciplinary approach to therapeutic strategies. The definition of RAI-refractoriness is usually a clear situation in specialized centers. However, the right moment for initiation of multikinase inhibitors (MKI), the time and availability for genomic testing, and the possibility of prescribing MKI and selective kinase inhibitors differ worldwide.
Latin America (LA) refers to the territories of the world that stretch across two regions: North America (including Central America and the Caribbean) and South America, containing 8.5% of the world’s population. In this manuscript, we critically review the current standard approach recommended for patients with RAI refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, emphasizing the challenges faced in LA. To achieve this objective, the Latin American Thyroid Society (LATS) convened a panel of experts from Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Colombia. Access to MKI compounds continues to be a challenge in all LA countries. This is true not only for MKI but also for the new selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which will also require genomic testing, that is not widely available. Thus, as precision medicine advances, significant disparities will be made more evident, and despite efforts to improve coverage and reimbursement, molecular-based precision medicine remains inaccessible to most of the LA population. Efforts should be undertaken to alleviate the discrepancies between the current state-of-the-art care for RAI-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and the present situation in Latin America.